By Richard H. Groshong
Geological buildings are 3 dimensional, but tend to be represented via, and - terpreted from, outcrop maps and constitution contour maps, either one of that are curved two-dimensional surfaces. Maps plus serial sections, referred to as 2½-D, offer a better method of 3 dimensionality. machine expertise now enables geological interpretations to be built from the start in an absolutely 3 dim- sional setting. totally three-D geological versions let a lot better interpre- tions and interpretations which are a lot more straightforward to proportion with different geologists and with most of the people. This ebook presents an summary of thoughts for developing structural interpretations in 2-D, 2½-D and three-D environments; for interpolating - tween and extrapolating past the regulate issues; and for validating the ultimate int- pretation. The underlying philosophy is that buildings are third-dimensional stable our bodies and that info from in the course of the constitution, no matter if in 2-D or 3-D layout, will be built-in into an internally constant 3-D interpretation. it's assumed that almost all clients of this publication will do their paintings on a working laptop or computer. C- sequently, the publication presents quantitative structural tools and methods which are designed to be used with spreadsheets, mapping software program, and 3-dimensional c- puter-graphics courses. The e-book can also be meant to supply the historical past for figuring out what interpretive software program, for instance, a working laptop or computer contouring p- gram, does instantly. so much recommendations are awarded in either a conventional structure applicable for paper, pencil, and a pocket calculator, and in quantitative structure to be used with spreadsheets and computer-graphics or computer-aided-design programs.
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Additional resources for 3-D Structural Geology: A Practical Guide to Quantitative Surface and Subsurface Map Interpretation
Depths in oil and gas wells are usually measured from the Kelly bushing (Fig. 6a). The elevation of the Kelly bushing (KB) is given in a surveyor’s report included as part of the well-log header information. Alternatively, depths may be measured from ground level (GL) or the derrick floor (DF). 37 38 Chapter 2 · Location and Attitude Fig. 5. 3-D oblique view of geologic map of Blount Springs area, from Fig. 4. Topography is shown as shaded relief map, without vertical exaggeration Fig. 6. Location in a deviated well.
The orientation of the well bore is measured by a directional survey. Some wells, especially older ones, may be unintentionally deviated from the vertical and lack a directional survey, resulting in spatial mislocation of the boundaries recorded by the well logs (if interpreted as being from a vertical well) which will lead to errors in dip and thickness determinations. The most common effect is for a well to wander down dip with increasing depth. A dipmeter log is a microresistivity log that simultaneously measures the electrical responses of units along three or more tracks down a well (Schlumberger 1986).
The UTM grid is used at lower latitudes and the USP grid is used in the polar regions. The UTM grid divides the earth into 6 × 8° quadrilaterals that are identified by reference numbers and letters. All UTM coordinates are with respect to a survey datum that should be specified. In North America, for example, UTMs are referenced to either the North American Datum of 1927 (NAD-27) or the datum of 1983 (NAD-83) (Bolstad 2002). UTM coordinates along the margin of a United States Geological Survey (USGS) map are given at intervals of 1 000 m (Fig.
3-D Structural Geology: A Practical Guide to Quantitative Surface and Subsurface Map Interpretation by Richard H. Groshong