By Regula Christiansen-Bolli
The current examine offers an in depth description of Tadaksahak, a Northern Songhay department of the Nilo-Saharan language staff. it truly is spoken by means of nearly 30,000 humans, consisting normally of the ethnic crew of the Idaksahak who're residing within the East of Mali in addition to in remoted areas in western Niger. The publication is split into 4 chapters giving a whole evaluation: the 1st brief bankruptcy offers information regarding the heritage of the Idaksahak. within the moment bankruptcy, the phonological gains of the language are defined, whereas the 3rd bankruptcy is devoted to the outline of the morphology of Tadaksahak. it truly is proven that verbal derivation pulls on unrelated Tamasheq for causative, reciprocal and heart in addition to passive. additionally, any verb root that's of Songhay starting place is suppleted whilst derived and a semantic identical of Tamasheq foundation takes its position. one other non-Songhay characteristic matters inflection the place the topic pronoun cliticizes to the verb and is often current even if a noun word holds the topic slot. The nominalization procedure used depends upon the etymology of the time period, a characteristic paralleled within the formation of adjectives. The final bankruptcy is devoted to the syntax of the language and offers types of noun words. moreover, the differing kinds of easy clauses are taken care of in addition to focalization and topicalization in such clauses. query phrases and supplement clauses together with the 2 attainable relativization techniques also are thought of, whereas the final part approximately advanced sentences provides subordinate clauses. within the appendices texts with glosses, lists of verb roots with their suppletions whilst derived, a wordlist Tadaksahak-English containing Songhay cognates and an index English-Tadaksahak are given.
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Additional resources for A Grammar of Tadaksahak: A Berberised Songhay Language (Mali)
B) a₌ddumb(ú) áari hé. 3s₌cut 1p [adːum'bæːɾi'he] thing he killed something for us. c) a₌ddumb(ú) íi₌se 3s₌cut 3p₌DAT feejí sheep [adːum'biːs(ǝ)fɛː'ʤi] he killed a sheep for them. In the transcription in this work we will write the dropped final V in brackets. Verbs that drop the last vowel all have a Songhay background. (42) Verbs dropping final /u/ Tadak dudú hunú tunú hurrú dumbú guŋgú húuru zumbú zurú gloss to pour to leave from to get up to look for to cut to guide (animal) to enter to get down to run Songhay (KCH) door hun tun wir dumbu gurje huru/a (KS) zumbu (KS) zuru (KS) 35 Phonological Structure /u/-final Verbs of Tamasheq origin seem to have an underlying /w/ that is normally realized as /u/.
Long vowels do not obligatorily carry the stress. However, when a long vowel is present, the stressed syllable can only be one syllable removed from it. The speakers are aware of word stress and use this feature to create riddles by putting the stress on the wrong syllable to cause the hearer to misunderstand the utterance. , the lexical stress may shift to some other syllable. There are some stress patterns that are frequent and new imported vocabulary often follows such established patterns. g.
2. In positive perfective forms, where there is no overt Mood-AspectNegation marker, the initial consonant of the verb stem is lengthened under the same circumstances. (35) Initial consonant of verb lengthened [aɣa'dːǝbǝta] [nɪ'dːǝbǝta] [a'dːǝbǝta] [aɣa'jːɪbǝta] [nɪ'jːɪbǝta] [a'jːɪbǝta] aɣa₌ddǝbǝt₌a ni₌ddǝbǝt₌a a₌ddǝbǝt₌a aɣa₌yyíbǝt₌a ni₌yyíbǝt₌a a₌yyíbǝt₌a ‘I can do it’ ‘you can do it’ ‘s/he can do it’ ‘I snatched it’ ‘you snatched it’ ‘s/he snatched it’ With monosyllabic stems that carry the stress on the only syllable of the verb, this lengthening appears very strongly.
A Grammar of Tadaksahak: A Berberised Songhay Language (Mali) by Regula Christiansen-Bolli