By Roger Williams, Verne S. Caviness Jr. (auth.), Ralph E. Tarter, Gerald Goldstein (eds.)
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Extra resources for Advances in Clinical Neuropsychology: Volume 2
The arrow in C indicates a large pyramidal neuron typical of those (Betz) encountered normally in layer V of the motor cortex. The arrows in D point to clusters of heterotopic neurons subjacent to the pachygyric cortex. These neurons are small "granular" cells, typical of those found normally in layer IV of primary sensory and associational cortices. (Cresyl Violet, 68X). NORMAL AND ABNORMAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN 41 4. Driftwood cortex. This malformation, apparently transmitted also by autosomal recessive inheritance, is unique among malformations in man in that large axon fascicles are direc'ed to the most superficial plane of the cortex, imparting a "d r if t Nood" appearance (Rebeiz, Wolf, & Adams, 1968).
Camera lucida drawing of representative neurons and astrocytes from the heterotopia (H) of lissencephaly. Like neurons of the true cortex, heterotopic neurons have developed class characteristic dendritic and axonal features. Pyramidal neurons are normally aligned and most are properly oriented with their apical shafts ascending toward the cerebral surface. In contrast to the inverted pyramids in Figure 22, the axon of the inverted pyramid illustrated here in the heterotopic zone exits normally from the base of the cell (arrowhead), but then recurves to descend toward the subcortical white matter.
C. Schematic model of presumed synaptic organization of polymicrogyric cortex. There may be a proliferation of axon collaterals among tier I neurons above the scar, and below the scar a tangentially oriented pyramidal cell is contacted by several groups of thalamocortical afferents (Atc) and by corticocortical afferents (Acc) • NORMAL AND ABNORMAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN 47 likely results from a subtotal destructive process causing cell loss, meager gliosis and subsequent tissue distortion. When the destructive process is more severe, large defects occur in the cerebral wall.
Advances in Clinical Neuropsychology: Volume 2 by Roger Williams, Verne S. Caviness Jr. (auth.), Ralph E. Tarter, Gerald Goldstein (eds.)