By Dr Ayse Zarakol
No longer being of the West; being at the back of the West; now not being sleek sufficient; now not being built or industrialized, secular, civilized, Christian, obvious, or democratic - those descriptions have all served to stigmatize sure states via historical past. Drawing on constructivism in addition to the insights of social theorists and philosophers, After Defeat demonstrates that stigmatization in diplomacy can result in a feeling of nationwide disgrace, in addition to auto-Orientalism and inferior prestige. Ay?e Zarakol argues that stigmatized states develop into extra-sensitive to matters approximately prestige, and form their international coverage hence. The theoretical argument is supported by way of an in depth old assessment of crucial examples of the established/outsider dichotomy during the evolution of the fashionable states method, and in-depth reports of Turkey after the 1st global struggle, Japan after the second one global conflict, and Russia after the chilly battle.
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Extra resources for After Defeat: How the East Learned to Live with the West
Finally, that there is a “society” at the international level becomes obvious when we consider the implicit common ground shared by the states in the modern international system,67 which is even more remarkable given the absence of a world government. , are all examples of shared normative ground between the established and the outsiders of the international system. Chapter 2 will also address the link between modernity and the projection of the established-outsider dynamic to the international level.
In other words, the insecurities created by the international environment have been built into the national identities of these states. The status-conscious trajectories in the last century can be traced back to that original insecurity, and in fact this was what ultimately drove these states Westward after their respective defeats. The evidence for these claims lies in developments in the nineteenth century. 22 They had a different experience because they had to recreate themselves as “modern” states against a backdrop of an emerging international society of states that had already made the transition organically.
And in contrast, societies which benefited most from these developments had been facing near destruction not long ago. See Ruggie, “Territoriality and Beyond,” 161. Goldstone, “Cultural Orthodoxy,” 130. , 131. Wallerstein, Modern World-System, pp. 324–5. ” What is forgotten is that prior to at least the eighteenth century, social and economic life in countries such as the Ottoman Empire, Russia, or China was not so different from other agrarian empires now considered part of “Western Civilization,” such as Spain.
After Defeat: How the East Learned to Live with the West by Dr Ayse Zarakol