Air quality management: considerations for developing - download pdf or read online

By Lakdasa Wijetilleke, Suhashini A. R. Karunaratne, Suhashini Karunaratne (A. R.)

ISBN-10: 0821331914

ISBN-13: 9780821331910

Show description

By Lakdasa Wijetilleke, Suhashini A. R. Karunaratne, Suhashini Karunaratne (A. R.)

ISBN-10: 0821331914

ISBN-13: 9780821331910

Show description

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The reformulation of diesel oil by reducing its sulfur content would decrease emissions of SO2 and consequently of sulfates that contribute to SPM concentrations. In addition, reduction of the heavier hydrocarbon fractions in diesel oil by reducing the temperature at which 90 volume-percent of the diesel oil is distilled will decrease the formation of particulates measuring 10 microns or less in diameter. Diesel oil reformulation is expensive, but it should have higher priority in developing countries where diesel consumption is high.

The greenhouse effect, depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, and acid rain are caused by aggregations of regional and global pollutants emitted by different and widespread sources. Thus, for example, emissions in the Indian subcontinent or Africa could ultimately affect the rest of the world. The Greenhouse Effect Carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), ground-level ozone (O3), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) absorb infrared radiation from the earth, acting in effect as an insulating blanket that prevents heat from escaping the atmosphere.

The 1970 Act, as amended, sets a societal goal of achieving good air quality without consideration of the costs involved. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments tightened pollution-control measures in cities, stipulated necessary changes in transportation fuels, and established more stringent exhaust emission standards. 7 weight-percent (wt-%) minimum average oxygen must be added to gasoline during the winter in cities that are not in compliance with federal air quality standards. S. standards may be too strict for some developing countries, but they should provide a useful basis for developing regulations appropriate to each country.

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Air quality management: considerations for developing countries, Volumes 23-278 by Lakdasa Wijetilleke, Suhashini A. R. Karunaratne, Suhashini Karunaratne (A. R.)


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