By Dr. Ali Nourai
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Extra resources for An Etymological Dictionary of Persian, English and Other Indo-European Languages: Etymological Charts
We observe the same tendency today in the pronunciation of English. Question:Â€How many syllables do you count in these words:Â€several, every, groceries, history, evening, celery, dangerous? Answer:Â€ Some might say these words have three syllables, but in casual speech most pronounce them with two. Syncope in English is variable. You may or may not syncopate such words as:Â€funeral, nursery, numerous, camera. Syncope is rare or impossible in such words as:Â€surgery, Mexico, feminine, imaginary, caliber, difficult, courteous, salivate.
1 General patterns of syncope Syncope is among the earliest changes affecting Popular Latin. Examples occur in Latin inscriptions and in the few surviving sources that reflect Popular Latin speech. Standard Latin oculu Popular Latin ‘eye’ oclu (CIL)1 29 Early changes in syllable structure and consonants auricula calidu ‘ear’ ‘hot’ (Appendix Probi)2 (Appendix Probi) oricla caldu Just as in today’s English, it operates variably, hitting different words at different times and some not at all. But the typical patterns for our three languages are those shown here: Latin lepore capparis insula altera calida viride (de-)positu ‘hare’ ‘caper’ ‘island’ ‘other’ ‘hot’ ‘green’ ‘place’ Italian lepre cappero isola altra calda verde posto Spanish liebre alcaparra isla otra calda (OSp) verde puesto French lièvre câpre île autre chaude verte dépôt These examples, and more to come, show that the pressure to syncopate is greater in French and Spanish than in Italian.
Question:Â€What happens to original voiced stops /b d g/? 2). Spanish generally has the same [β ð ɣ] as came from voiceless stops, except that original /d/ lenites all the way to zero in some words. In French, /b d g/ behave like /p t k/, namely:Â€/b/ survives as /v/ while /d/, /g/ lenite all the way to zero. In Spanish, the fricative series [β ð ɣ] enters into an allophonic relationship with [b d g]. The stop allophones occur in breath-group-initial and post-nasal positions. In addition, /ld/ clusters are [ld] not [lð].
An Etymological Dictionary of Persian, English and Other Indo-European Languages: Etymological Charts by Dr. Ali Nourai